[Current projects]    [Ended projects]

Current projects


    This is a project aimed to improve accuracy of the in situ stratospheric water vapour measurement and to provide the scientific community with a novel upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric water vapor data set obtained by accurate instruments at high latitudes. The new data set will be used in process studies, in a study to assess the trends in stratospheric water vapor in the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and for validation of the Chemistry-Climate Models (CCM). Knowledge of stratospheric water vapor changes is also important in the context of the stratospheric ozone predictions. It is expected that future changes in stratospheric water vapor will have a major impact on stratospheric ozone, both through changes in the radiative balance, changes in HOx, and through the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). It is therefore important to assess how well the CCMs simulate the observed water vapor distribution. The project is coordinated by Dr. Rigel Kivi of ARC and is conducted in collaboration with the Climate Change and Earth Observation Units. The other ARC participants besides Kivi are Alexey Karpechko, Petteri Ahonen and Anna Kontu. Part of the research will be done in cooperation with Vaisala Oy, a Finnish company, which is the leading manufacturer of radiosondes in the world. Also the research group is involved in the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN), which is a recent international activity to build a reference network for climate studies.

    Chemical and Dynamical Influences on Decadal Ozone Change

    CEEPRA 2011-2014
    Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research
    The aim of the CEEPRA (Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research) project is establishment of a cooperation network in the EuroArctic region, cross-border exchange of knowledge and skills, improvement of emergency preparedness capabilities and risk assessments in case of nuclear accidents in the region as well as raising awareness and knowledge in the general public and stakeholders with respect to the nature, common challenges and associated risks in the area of nuclear safety, emergency preparedness and radioactivity in the environment. The project will study the current state of radioactive contamination in terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the EuroArctic region by examining environmental samples collected from the Finnish Lapland, Finnmark and Troms in Norway, the Kola Peninsula and the Barents Sea. The results will provide updated information on the present levels, occurrence and fate of radioactive substances in the Arctic environments and food chains. Special attention will be given to collection and analyses of natural products widely used by population in Finland, Russia and Norway, such as berries, mushrooms, fish and reindeer meat. The region-specific risk assessments will be carried out through modelling and investigation of long-term effects of potential nuclear accidents in the EuroArctic region and possible impacts on the region’s indigenous population, terrestrial and marine environments, reindeer husbandry, the natural product sector, tourism and industries.

    CEOS Intercal Nordic Campaign



    Copernicus Service Snow and Land Ice

    The CyberWI (Cyber-security in the Wireless Industrial use cases) is the international project with partners from Finland, Sweden, Luxembourg and Spain, proposing to work on security solutions that integrate seamlessly over different infrastructures such as Cloud Computing, Wireless Sensor Networks and Mobile technologies. The goal is to enable the Industrial Internet, where even small companies can easily deploy secure services operating across different infrastructures.
    CyberWI will achieve this goals by first gathering security use cases and requirements from a broad range of industrial partners and application scenarios, such as building automation, industrial control systems, traffic applications, health care, and banking services.
    Based on these use cases and requirements, the project will work on intrusion detection, encrypted databases, authentication and access control, secure data transfer, and security testing tools for the different target infrastructures. Furthermore the project will work on how to seamlessly integrate such services across the different infrastructures. In order to ensure that the obtained results work in a production environment, demonstrators and test beds will be implemented and publicly presented.
    The idea of CyberWI project is to have key players from different domains, both industrial partners and SMEs. There are also partners focusing key infrastructures of the Industrial Internet. There are companies and research organizations specialized Cloud Computing, Wireless Sensor Networks or Mobile technologies related research.
    In the CyberWI project FMI represents a governmental authority operating an open meteorological database for the public and providing public weather services utilizing wireless telecommunication. Both these activities require high-level security. FMI contributes to WP5 of the project with the focus on two pilot cases:
    • Generating additional protection through CyberWI applications for the FMI Sodankylä local database, respecting the security restrictions of FMI information management
    • Securing unharmed and undistorted wireless delivery of specific route-based (roads, sea and air routes) weather services (to be specified within the project)
    FMI will coordinate such activities as the only authorized operator of both the Sodankylä database and weather service data. FMI also participates to project dissemination activities and CyberWI security system development associated with the FMI pilot scenarios.

    ESA SnowPEx
    Project aims to bring together scientists and institutions active in generation of hemispheric to global seasonal snow cover products in order to assess the quality of current snow products derived from satellite data, resolve possible ambiguities and work out guidelines for improvement. The primary objectives are:
    • Intercompare and evaluate global / hemispheric (pre) operational snow products derived from different EO sensors and generated by different algorithms, in order to assess the product quality by objective means.
    • Identify communalities and discrepancies in the various satellite snow products, and determine their causes
    • Evaluate and intercompare temporal trends of seasonal snow parameters derived from different EO based products in order to achieve well-founded estimates of reliability for climate change monitoring
    • Elaborate recommendations for further improvements in methods, processing lines and delivery of snow products from EO data.

    Fourier Transform spectrometer in Infra-Red regime

    Gap Analysis for Integrated Atmospheric ECV CLImate Monitoring


    Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System

    Dual-frequency band mesoscale 3D ionospheric tomography Tomoscand is a satellite radio receiver network for three-dimensional measurements of the ionospheric electron density in the Fennoscandian region. The electron densities are obtained by using ionospheric tomography. The long-term goal is to add TomoScand as an upgrade to the MIRACLE network by equipping all the MIRACLE magnetometer stations with Beacon receivers. Data from TomoScand is processed with a novel statistical inversion method, which has been developed with the support of the Academy of Finland (2011-2013).

    Sea ice and snow products for the Barents, Pechora and Kara Seas using multisensor satellite data

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring and for better understanding the Arctic climate system. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction (NWP). The proposed project aims to utilize the existing satellite- and model-based long term snow cover records for evaluation of changes in cryosphere. Project also aims to investigate approaches for combining various data for environmental monitoring and develop approaches for implementing snow cover information in hydrological forecasting and NWP. The results of the project will enhance our knowledge of long term changes in cryosphere, improve methods for snow remote sensing and enhance the capabilities to assimilate snow data for hydrological modeling and numerical weather prediction.


    Measurement, Monitoring and Environmental Assessment


    Monitoring of Ionosphere by innovative techniques, coordinated observations and resources

    O3M SAF




    Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    The EU project Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment of development of the Arctic collected in about a years time as broadly as possible the research relevant to assessing the development of the Arctic at the moment and with a view to the next decade. FMI was responsible for the first science chapter on climate change. It leads to several chapters on changing domains of human activities, all usually impacted by the changing climate as well.


    Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System



    International Snow Services Working Group, established by an international team of remote sensing product and service providers, focussing at operational services in remote sensing of snow cover and glaciers. Available documents: Minutes of the first meeting 15 Dec. 2006, Participants of the first meeting 15 Dec. 2006, Terms of reference.
    These snow maps are provided Within the context of the Polar View programme, which began in 2006 and is funded through the Earthwatch GMES Service Element (GSE).


    Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment coordinated by WMO at Sodankylä measuring field near the new antenna area. The aim is to develop a referens using the automatic sensors and create an instructions for those modern sensor's senses to measure precipitation in arctic climates in all season, particularly when precipitation is solid.

    Ionospheric electrodynamics from Swarm satellite

    Älykkäät rekat - Intelligent Arctic Truck platoon
Ended projects
    Carbon Balance in Northern Latitudes: Novel Assessment Methods Applying Combined Ground-Based and Earth Observation Data
    In Carb-Bal project, dedicated models describing carbon flux (uptake, respiration) are developed for different soil and vegetation (forest) types. These models are applied with the nation wide NFI grid of plots, which is complemented with statistical models. This enables CO2 flux estimates for each NFI plot. The carbon flux of a grid cell is modeled as a function of remote sensing data-based statistical land cover information by applying models from phase 1. Land cover information includes soil and vegetation characteristics (such as quasi-static LAI or canopy closure). Dynamic behavior of carbon flux in each individual grid cell is modeled by inputting temperature and radiation information together with satellite data-based snow and soil frost/vegetation status information. The project consists of 4 different work packages:
    • WP1: Development of techniques to map dynamic soil, vegetation and snow cover characteristics for Eurasia utilising EO data (FMI; VTT, SYKE)
    • WP2: Methods to derive land cover and LAI information for CO2 flux modelling (VTT; SYKE, FMI)
    • WP3: Modeling and up-scaling regional ground reference for CO2 fluxes (UHEL; METLA)
    • WP4: Development and testing of methodologies for test sites in Finland and northern Eurasia (FMI, UHEL, SYKE, VTT)

    Wireless traffic service platform for linking cars
    Eureka Celtic-project, with partners from Finland, Spain and Luxembourg. Project is funded by national authorities of each country, in Finland the funding is organised by Tekes. Project has started in September 2006 and will last until the end of September 2008. The aim of this project is to develop an intelligent wireless traffic service platform between cars supported with wireless transceivers beside the road(s). The primary applications are real-time local weather data, the urban transport traffic management, and the urban information broadcasting. FMI participates to the project by two teams. FMI ARC coordinates project activities in Finland and participates to the wireless networking research and local weather service adaptation to the platform. Meteorological application development and research activities team arranges the local weather service development within weather model and related issues. First presentation of Carlink-system was given in Älykkään Liikenteen Päivä. The presentation slides can be found here.

    The postdoctoral researcher project of Dr. Alexey Karpechko ’Climate change associated with annular modes’ funded by The Academy of Finland has started on 1/01/2010. It is aimed on understanding uncertainties in climate projections arising from uncertainties in annular modes (AMs) projections and on exploring possibilities to reduce these uncertainties. In 2010 the contribution of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) to uncertainties in future temperature and precipitation changes were quantified and shown to be significant in some parts of Eurasia and North America. The dependence of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on future ozone trends as well as on different greenhouse gas emission scenarios was demonstrated. First experiments with atmosphere-only GCM ECHAM5 were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the NAM response to different sea surface temperature anomalies under doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. These responses appeared to be different between the high-top (i.e. stratosphere-resolving) and low-top (i.e. not resolving the stratosphere) versions of the model, highlighting the role of the stratosphere in climate change simulations. The goal for year 2011 is to set up runs with the ocean-coupled version of the stratosphere-resolving model, which would allow to progress from the idealized experiments to more realistic simulations of climate change.

    COmmunity heavy-PAyload Long endurance Instrumented Aircraft for Propospheric Research in Environmental and Geo-Sciences
    In 2010 FMI scientist (Jussi Paatero) wrote some final reports about the enquiries that they conducted among institutes, laboratories and other enterprices which own suitable instrumentation for aircraft campaigns or who are interested in building such instrumentation. FMI (Kirsti Kauristie) also participated to the Steering Committee meetings where the main topic in discussions was the legal structure suitable for potential future COPAL activities and EUFAR collaboration (Open Access Scheme). In 2011 the work will continue in the following WPs: WP2 (Participation to the discussions about the most suitable interim legal structure for the future COPAL activities before the air craft procurement), WP5 (Finalizing the work related with the enquiries about instruments and their producers (SMEs, laboratories, Universities)), WP6 (Searching suitable proposal evaluation procedures for the future COPAL activities).

    CoReH2O Synergy Study


    CoReH2O Snow Data Assimilation Study

    ECLAT 2010-2014
    The European Cluster Assimilation Technology

    Quantifying energetic particle forcing of the atmosphere using ground-based auroral cameras
    A doctoral research project (Academy of Finland) of Daniel Whiter during years 2013-2014.
    The project ended in spring 2014 as Whiter was offered a permanent position in the University of Southampton.

    EISCAT Research in the IPY framework
    In 2010 a list of solar wind shock events during the THEMIS lifetime was created and the analysis of some interesting substorm events were started. The statistical study about travelling ionospheric disturbances was continued. Combined EISCAT and MIRACLE data were used in a statistical study about Joule heating which published in JGR.

    EISCAT-TID, 2011-2013
    Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances driven by geospace activity
    The project conducted investigations of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) by using data from the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars and other ionospheric instrumentation operated in the vicinity of the radars. TIDs are quasi-periodic fluctuations (T>0.25 h, L>100 km) visible especially in the ionospheric plasma velocity and density. Previous studies have shown that TIDs have close connection with atmospheric gravity waves and that their triggerers can be either tropospheric or geospace phenomena.

    Quantitative use of electron multiplying CCD technology in auroral research
    This project investigates the altitude of the auroral peak emission in different geophysical conditions in order to improve methods for estimating motion of auroral structures and auroral precipitation fluxes. Noora Partamies coordinates the project for which Laureline Sangalli was hired in 2009-2010. Sangalli completed a preliminary comparison study between the old (all-sky with an image intensifier) and new (all-sky with an emCCD) auroral camera system, as well as a comparison between the ground-based and in-situ satellite measurements. The results were presented in the Annual European Optical Meeting and the paper is in press in International Journal of Remote Sensing. She also studied the altitude evolution along an auroral arc with image matching and triangulation. The plan for 2011 is to perform a statistical analysis of auroral peak emission altitudes. We will also investigate optical flow algorithms and their reliability in estimating the motion of aurora. From 2011 on, the work is done by Daniel Whiter.


    ESA-RAF (2013-2015)
    Regional Auroral Forecasts in the ESA Space Situational Awareness programme
    The Regional Auroral Forecast service gives information about the prevailing auroral activity and some statistical forecasts of auroral occurrence probabilities with lead times up to 12 hours. The characterization of prevailing auroral activity is based on auroral camera data and Near-Real Time (NRT) data from five magnetometer stations (KEV, MUO, OUJ, HAN, and NUR) operated in Fennoscandia and on Kp index provided by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. The forecasts are based on statistical relationships between a selection of NOAA space weather alerts and magnetic field data recorded at the above listed stations after different delay times from the alert issuance times.

    ESA SSA-Arctic (2014-2015)
    Tailoring space weather services for Arctic Region

    ESA Swarm-Cluster (2013-2014)
    Exploiting synergies between Swarm and Cluster

    EURISGIC 2010-2014
    European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents


    Finnish Ultraviolet International Research Center

    Similarities and differences of the Arctic and Antarctic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling
    During 2010 studies of the inter-hemispheric asymmetries in the magnetic field during storm-time activations, sawtooth oscillations and steady magnetospheric convection events were conducted. Available observations (PCN & PCS) were presented in the Oslo IPY meeting. More thorough comparison of ground-based observations would require new event selection from the past few years of data to guarantee better coverage. Modelling of the mapping between the hemispheres has been investigated, and some key results are to be published.

    Electrodynamics in a 3D ionosphere
    The postdoctoral researcher project of Dr. Heikki Vanhamäki continued in winter 2009-2010 with a 6-month visit (October-April) to the Solar-Terrestrial Environment laboratory at the Nagoya University. During this time he also visited the Dr. Aki Yoshikawa at the Kyushu University. In 2011 Dr. Vanhamäki co-authored a review article of various data-analysis methods for ground-based ionospheric studies and formulated a new type of inductive ionospheric solver to be used in magnetospheric MHD simulations. He also participated in studies of the ionospheric Cowling effect. Also Dr. Yoshikawa's visit at FMI in August 2010 was partially connected to this project. The collaboration established during the visit to Japan has been very fruitful and will continue in 2011. Furthermore, Dr. Vanhamäki will apply funding from JSPS for a 5 month visit to the Kyushu University in winter 2011-2012, where Dr. Yoshikawa would host the visit.


    Lapland Atmosphere-Biosphere Facility
    A LAPBIAT atmospheric sounding campaign took place in Sodankylä in January-June 2010 to perform profile measurements of water vapor and aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere by various in situ and remote sensing instruments. Main target of the campaign was to study chemical and dynamical processes in the high latitude upper atmosphere and secondly to improve instrumentation for such measurements. LAPBIAT 2010 was a major research campaign in FMI Sodankylä with 32 participants. The participants were from the FMI, German Meteorological Service, University of Bern (Switzerland), Central Aerological Observatory (Russian Federation), Danish Meteorological Institute, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland), the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Germany), Vaisala Oy (Finland), GRAW (Germany), Intermet Systems (US). Part of the measurements in Sodankylä were made in coordination with the EU RECONCILE project stratospheric aircraft campaign and the CALIPSO satellite based measurements.

    LAPBIAT Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere Water Vapor Validation Project

    NCoE Tundra
    NCoE Tundra is a new Nordic Centre of Excellence during 2011-15, funded by NordForsk, under the scheme Top-level Research Initiative (TRI). Our scope is to study the interaction between the ecological phenomenon of top down impacts in food webs and climate-vegetation interactions, and to integrate this perspective with the man-managed reindeer husbandry and the Sámi culture dependent on it. Ultimately, we wish to learn how the top-down impact of reindeer can be optimally applied to the prevention of shrub encroachment and woodland expansion, and the resulting negative impacts of these processes on global climate and biodiversity. In the present project, we will approach the system of ecologic, climatologic, and socio-economic issues by means of an integrated, co-Nordic CoE project, gathering young specialists already working on different aspects of the above problem into an integrated Co-Nordic team. ARC will work in WP 7 (Interaction between vegetation and climate).

    Nordic snow radar experiment

    Studies of the changing Antarctic Atmosphere using Soundings. remote sensing and modeling: A Bi-polar Approach
    It was a research project coordinated by Prof. Esko Kyrö and funded by the Academy of Finland. During the project FMI conducted spectral UV measurements and UV albedo measurements (long term and campaigns) in both polar areas and the data calibration and archiving activities.

    Sodankylä total column ozone intercomparison

    Signal propagation in geospace
    This is the doctoral research project of Liisa Juusola. By combining simultaneous in-situ measurements from the magnetosphere with global ionospheric observations and simulations, we will study the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system on several different conditions of solar wind forcing. We will examine what kind of processes these conditions drive at different parts of geospace, what is their exact timing, and the chain of causes and consequences. Moreover, we will study the role of the preceding state of geospace in its response to a change in the solar wind forcing, and whether any part of the system is directly driven by the solar wind. Compared to previous studies, the more extensive observational coverage and the use of advanced tools to treat particularly the ionospheric data provide unprecedented opportunities for tracking signal propagation in geospace.

    Snow reflectance and transition experiment

    Snow Mapping of Boreal and Sub-Arctic Zones: Earth Observation Data-Based Multi-Source Information Systems and Application to Climatic Studies
    The objective of the Academy of Finland funded SNOW-CLIM project is to develop a methodology to combine multisource information for large scale mapping of snow characteristics in boreal and sub-arctic zones. Earth observation (EO) data from various space-borne instruments together with in situ snow/weather observations and land cover information will be applied. The methodology combines hierarchical algorithms with Bayesian analytical (remote sensing) model-based assimilation approaches. The technique provides snow information with known statistical accuracy characteristics. The spatial variations of land cover are taken into account, as well as the confidence levels of different data sources. This information is further used to extract northern Eurasian snow cover maps for comparisons against in situ and climate model re-analysis data, and in order to cross-validate climate simulations of the snow cover variability, and additionally, to estimate uncertainties of the climate change projections. Detailed validation of the snow mapping methodology is carried out in intensive test sites in Finland and Canada. The investigation will give answers to the following specific questions:
    • Are satellite data (particularly when different data sources are combined) feasible to significantly improve snow cover information of northern latitudes (when compared with the use of interpolated ground-based observations)?
    • Is this monitoring information relevant for the validation of climate model experiments?
    • Can the performance of climate models be improved using satellite data?
    The EO data consist of observations with microwave radiometers and radars (SSM/I, AMSR-E QuikSCAT and ERS Wind Scatterometer) and optical region data (MODIS, MERIS and AVHRR). The study team includes, in addition to FMI-ARC, two other research units of FMI: Earth Observation, and Climate and Global Change Research, as well as Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and Laboratory of Space Technology of Helsinki University of Technology. The main foreign collaborator is Environment Canada.


    TEKES Metsä
    The project investigated the possibilities of publicly available spatial data in mapping and predicting of geospatial phenomena with economic importance. The aim was to develop practical applications based merely on open data from the databases of Finnish Meteorological Institute, Geological Survey of Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla; since 1st of Jan 2015, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Luke) and National Land Survey of Finland. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing and machine learning techniques were applied in developing various applications. The most promising applications were:
    • Hydrological Operations and Prediction Model, HOPS
    • Mapping of mass-flow aggregate deposits for infrastructure construction
    • Quick response mapping of forest and open floods
    • Mapping of drainage networks from LiDAR

    Wireless traffic safety network between cars
    The WiSafeCar (Wireless traffic safety network between cars) project focuses on building a comprehensive, secure and reliable solution for V2I (Vehicle to Infrastructure) and V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle) communications. The main objective is to generate true V2I and V2V communications based on the car-to-car communication standards and protocols developed by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The WiSafeCar platform consists of vehicles equipped with on-board vehicle computers having vehicular networking capabilities (IEEE 802.11p and 3G), access point-like roadside units delivering vehicle data downlink and uplink, and the linking point within the fixed network, acting as the interface of platform vehicles (or users) and the independent services coordinated and linked by the linking point. The ultimate goal is to create an intelligent, seamless communication platform and mechanism for vehicles in which they exploit the generated services, partially based on their own observations of traffic and weather conditions.